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Based on an extensive, original data set covering nearly thirty years of protest and reform, my book Electoral Protest and Democracy in the Developing World, shows that the third wave of democracy has been accompanied by a worldwide wave in opposition-initiated, election-related protests, “electoral protests” for short. In the book, I argue these protests result from a failure on the part of incumbent and opposition elites in the developing world to negotiate acceptable terms of election conduct, and that the consequences of these protests for democracy depend on the context in which they occur. Where election boycotts receive international support, they increase the probability of democratic reform, but where support is primarily domestic there is a higher probability of authoritarian backsliding.
Data (in excel form): Electoral_Protest_and_Democracy